The Battle of Minorca 1756 Thursday, Feb 12 2015 

Sea motive

Battle of Minorca 1756 banner

Sea motive

The Battle of Minorca, fought between the English and the French was the first major naval battle of the Seven Years War. Although tactically indecisive, the result led to a major strategic victory for the French, with the capture of the Island of Minorca.

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The Island of Minorca was invaded by troops from Great Britain in 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession, and was acceded to it, together with the island of Gibraltar as part of the negotiations between Spain and Great Britain in the peace of Utrecht.

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The islands deep natural harbour of Port Mahón offered a naval base for British interests to rival the French port of Toulon, home of their Mediterranean fleet. During the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the island remained under British rule. At the end of the war, the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) left the strategic situation in the Western Mediterranean thus:-

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The death of the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Henry Pelham led to the succession of his brother, the Duke of Newcastle. Having long served as Secretary of State, he understood the need to preserve the balance of power in the European state system to prevent a widespread war.

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He had hopes of helping reduce Britain’s national debt, but actions in the French and Indian war intervened, resulting in expediture on the military as war beckoned again. The political tensions between France and Great Britain in the War of the Austrian succession were only partially resolved. During the 1750’s, they were unofficially at war in a series of border conflicts in North America, along the Ohio river valley, with the settlers of both nations claiming the vast land between the Appalachian mountains and the Mississippi.

A battle at Fort Necessity in 1754 between The French, and their Indian levies, defeated the British under the command of George Washington.

“I fortunately escaped without any wound, for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and received all the enemy’s fire, and it was the part where the man was killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me there is something charming in the sound.”

George Washington, 1754.

The French and Indian War threatened the peace of Europe at a time when peace between France and Great Britain was the declared intent. Despite this, the cold war between their colonists continued, as both sides transferred troops to America. Gathered intelligence led the British to ascertain when a French Atlantic fleet set sail for America.

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The Royal Navy, under the command of Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen and 11 ships pursued the French Navy and their troop transports. Most managed to land their men at Louisbourg in Nova Scotia, but three separated from the fleet in fog.

On 8th June 1755, HMS Dunkirk, HMS Defiance and HMS Neptune found the French ships Dauphin Royal, Alcide and Lys.

The French called out to the commander of the Royal Navy vessel “Are we at war, or at peace?” to which the English replied, “At peace, at peace.” After a brief discussion, the Royal Navy ships opened fire on the three French ships.

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After a five hour battle, the Alcide and Lys were captured, along with some 2,000 prisoners; troops from the Régiment de la Reine and the Languedoc regiment. News returned to London, causing concern.

‘It gives me much concern that so little has been done, since anything has been done at all… Voilà the war has begun.’
Hardwicke to Anson, 1755.

Worse news was to follow. The arrival of two regiments of foot under the command of Major General Braddock led the British to try to take Fort Duquesue in the disputed Ohio country. His expeditionary force was heavily defeated by a combination of French regulars, Canadien irregulars and Indian levies at the Battle of the Monongahela on 9 July 1755, due to their superior tactics of frontier fighting.

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General Braddock’s last words were reported to have been: “We shall know how to fight them next time.”

The resulting French victory ensured the Ohio country remained under their control. These two actions, together with continued aggressions on the American continent, and at sea propelled both nations towards war, which would inevitably involve the European theatre.

Where could France fight the British? In terms of its navy, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean ports, options could include furthering the war in the Americas, and possibly the Caribbean; a direct invasion of Great Britain (the Atlantic options), or an invasion of Minorca (the Mediterranean option). The time of expansion for the French Navy had long passed from its prime under Colbert in the 1680’s, so it was outnumbered by the Royal Navy. Nonetheless, it had undergone a second renaissance under Maurepas in the 1740’s. By concentrating what fleet it had, it could gain local superiority in any action, provided the British were prevented from concentrating their own.

In terms of its army, French troops would be required for all the options above, with a further option for war against Hanover, and the Crown interest of George II, its Elector in the mainland European theatre, provided that Austria would remain neutral, and break its historical alliance with Great Britain.

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More so than Britain, the French naval strategy would follow the strategy for their army, due to the constraints of numbers. Conversely, the Royal Navy also faced challenges. Its strength in terms of numbers of ships and men had been run down since the end of the War of the Austrian Succession by the Pelham administration. Nonetheless, on paper it enjoyed at least a superiority over the French Navy in terms of ships. It would need this, given its territorial duties included three distinct regions. Firstly the Atlantic Ocean, with the American and Carribean colonies. Secondly, the Mediterranean Sea, and the bases at Gibraltar and Minorca. Finally control of the Western Approaches, and the English Channel, which were key to safeguarding Great Britain from potential invasion. Together these vast areas of sea could swallow up the available resource.

The following reports received by the Admiralty demonstrate the confused picture emerging of the French threat.

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The blow, when struck, could come anywhere according to the intelligence. Sparring between the two nations continued at sea.

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War became more certain as the French Crown made its plans.

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In response, the Admiralty prepared for either invasion, or a possible assault on Minorca from the French fleet in Toulon. Caution urged that the Royal Navy should protect against invasion.

“I think it would be a dangerous measure, to part with with your Naval strength from this country, which cannot be recalled if wanted, when I am strongly of the opinion that whenever the French intend anything in earnest, their attack will be against this country.”  
Anson to Hardwicke, December 1755. 

Diplomatic events in early 1756 accelerated the move to war. The Treaty of Westminster between Britain and Prussia was signed in January 1756.

Leuthen 1757 (7)

Each party guaranteed the neutrality of Germany, thus hopefully securing the borders between Hanover and Prussia. In response, and unbeknown to Great Britain, a diplomatic revolution (Renversement des Alliances) was underway within Europe. Centuries of animosity between Hapsburg Austria and Bourbon France were being addressed to one of mutual support in times of war, with the lead coming from the Austrian State Chancellor, Count von Kaunitz. Such a system would lead to France being free to attack British interests globally wherever suited, whilst leaving Austria to settle its score with Prussia. The first treaty of Versailles between Austria and France was signed on 1st May 1757. Before then, France would strike a blow at Britain.

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With these diplomatic moves in motion, the French fleet made ready for an invasion of Minorca, with the decision being made on 15 March 1756.

At this point, the French plan was unknown to the British, who in turn had decided to sail a small squadron of ten ships to the Mediterranean, under the command of Vice Admiral, the Hon. John Byng.

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Having served in the Mediterranean during the War of the Austrian Succession, he knew the sea and its conditions. His father, George Byng, viscount Torrington, had also fought with success against the Spanish in the Mediterranean in 1718. Given his experience and connections, Byng was formally appointed commander of the Mediterranean fleet on March 11, 1756.

Anson had his reservations regarding Byng, considering him weak on leadership and initiative.

“I don’t know how it comes to pass that unless our commanders-in-chief have a very great superiority of the enemy, they never think themselves safe”
“Byng’s squadron could beat anything the French had”
Anson, 1756.

Nonetheless, he was promoted from Vice-Admiral to Admiral of the Blue on March 17, 1756. Upon reaching his command, and making his flagship HMS Ramilles, he found his fleet short of men, and a few ships decrepit. He was not permitted to take sailors from other ships, and his orders received on April 1, 1756 indicated that soldiers were to be taken instead of the normal complement of Marines.  Byng’s orders from the Admiralty had three instructions; to watch for any French fleet which would pass by Gibraltar, and detatch as many ships required from his own fleet to shadow them (if necessarily all the way to the Americas, their suspected target), secondly to ascertain the state of affairs in Minorca and to relieve any siege taking palce, and finally if neither of these events had occurred to move to Toulon and commence a blockade of the French fleet. Byng sailed on 6 April, 1756, reaching Gibraltar on 2 May 1756.

Unbeknownst to Byng, the French had set sail from Toulon on 10 April, with an invasion fleet of 12 ships of the line, escorting 176 transports and 12,000 men.  The fleet was commanded by the Marquis de La Galissonière, a commander unproven in combat, with the invasion troops led by the duc de Richelieu.

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Arriving on 18 April, the French immediately invaded Minorca, and succeeded in taking all the island, except St Philip’s Castle, which was held by the British under the command of General Sir William Blakeney. St Philip’s Castle guarded the entrance to Port Mahón, and thus a siege began.

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Admiral Byng and the governor of Gibraltar, Lt. General Folke, received news of the invasion of Minorca and the siege of the remaining British troops on the island. Despite orders to supply troops to Byng, Folke kept his troops on Gibraltar, and offered little assistance, in the hope to keep the island ready for an expected invasion. Both Byng and Folke wrote to the Admiralty offering their explanation for the impasse between the two commanders. Byng’s letters were poorly received by the Admiralty, where his downbeat tone regarding his difficulties and chances gave the impression of a man not willing to fight.

Byng was reinforced by Captain Edgecombe and the small Mediterranean squadron, and the combined fleet set sail for Minorca on 8 May.  It comprised of 13 ships of the line, and 4 frigates.

By 19 May, Byng’s squadron arrived off the coast of Minorca, to the consternation of the French troops besieging St. Philip’s Castle. The duc de Richelieu, commanding the French remarked.

“Gentlemen, there is a very interesting game being played out there. If Monsieur de La Galissonière defeats the enemy, we may continue our siege in carpet slippers. But if he is beaten, we shall have to storm the place at once, at any cost.”
duc de Richelieu, 1756.

Attempts to communicate between the besieged British force and the relief squadron failed when the French fleet led by the Marquis de la Galissonniere, was sighted and Admiral Byng gave the signal to his squadron to chase the enemy. The wind became light and the two fleets did not engage until the following morning.

The following account of the battle was given by Admiral Byng on May 25, several days after the battle had concluded. It was addressed to the Admiralty Board.

SIR, I have the pleasure to desire that you will acquaint their Lordships that, having sailed from Gibraltar the 8th, I got off Mahon the 19th, having been joined by his Majesty’s ship Phoenix off Majorca two days before, by whom I had confirmed the intelligence I had received at Gibraltar, of the strength of the French fleet, and of their being off Mahon. His Majesty’s colours were still flying at the castle of St. Philip; and I could perceive several bomb-batteries playing on it from different parts. French colours I saw flying on the west part of St. Philip. I dispatched the Phoenix, Chesterfield, and Dolphin ahead, to reconnoitre the harbour’s mouth; and Captain Hervey to endeavour to land a letter for General Blakeney, to let him know the fleet was here to his assistance; though every one was of the opinion we could be of no use to him; as, by all accounts, no place was secured for covering a landing, could we have spared the people.

The Phoenix was also to make the private signal between Captain Hervey and Captain Scrope, as this latter would undoubtedly come off, if it were practicable, having kept the Dolphin’s barge with him: but the enemy’s fleet appearing to the south-east, and the wind at the same time coming strong off the land, obliged me to call these ships in, before they could get quite so near the entrance of the harbour as to make sure what batteries or guns might be placed to prevent our having any communication with the castle.

Falling little wind, it was five before I could form my line, or distinguish any of the enemy’s motions; and could not judge at all of their force, more than by numbers, which were seventeen, and thirteen appeared large. They at first stood towards us in regular line; and tacked about seven; which I judged was to endeavour to gain the wind of us in the night; so that, being late, I tacked in order to keep the weather-gage of them, as well as to make sure of the land wind in the morning [20 May], being very hazy, and not above five leagues from Cape Mola. We tacked off towards the enemy at eleven; and at daylight had no sight of them. But two tartars, with the French private signal, being close in with the rear of our fleet, I sent the PRINCESS LOUISA to chase one, and made signal for the Rear-Admiral, who was nearest the other, to send ships to chase her. The PRINCESS LOUISA, DEFIANCE, and CAPTAIN, became at a great distance; but the DEFIANCE took hers, which had two captains, two lieutenants, and one hundred and two private soldiers, who were sent out the day before with six hundred men on board tartars, to reinforce the French fleet on our appearing off that place. The PHOENIX, on Captain Hervey’s offer, prepared to serve as a fire-ship, but without damaging her as a frigate; till the signal was made to prime, when she was then to scuttle her decks, everything else prepared, as the time and place allowed of.

The enemy now began to appear from the mast-head.

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I called in the cruisers; and, when they had joined me, I tacked towards the enemy, and formed the line ahead. I found the French; were preparing theirs to leeward, having unsuccessfully endeavoured to weather me. They were twelve large ships of the line, and five frigates.

As soon as I judged the rear of our fleet the length of their van, we tacked altogether, and immediately made the signal for the ships that led to lead large, and for the DEPTFORD to quit the line, that ours might become equal to theirs.

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At two I made the signal to engage: I found it was the surest method of ordering every ship to close down on the one that fell to their lot. And here I must express my great satisfaction at the very gallant manner in which the Rear-Admiral set the van the example, by instantly bearing down on the ships he was to engage, with his second, and who occasioned one of the French ships to begin the engagement, which they did by raking ours as they went down.

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[When the signal to engage was made, the van under rear-admiral Temple West kept away in obedience to it, and sailed towards the French, thus reducing their cannon fire. They received three raking broadsides from the French, and were seriously dismantled aloft. The sixth British ship (Intrepid) counting from the van, had her fore-topmast shot away, flew up into the wind, and came aback, stopping and doubling up the rear of the line.]

The INTREPID, unfortunately, in the very beginning, had her foretopmast shot away; and as that hung on her foretopsail, and backed it, he had no command of his ship, his fore-tack and all his braces being cut at the same time; so that he drove on the next ship to him, and obliged that and the ships ahead of me to throw all back. This obliged me to do also for some minutes, to avoid their falling on board me though not before we had drove our adversary out of the line, who put before the wind, and had several shots fired at him by his own admiral. This not only caused the enemy’s centre to be unattached, but the Rear-Admiral’s division rather uncovered for some little time. I sent and called to the ships ahead of me to make sail, and go down on the enemy; and ordered the Chesterfield to lay by the INTREPID, and the DEPTFORD to supply the INTREPID’S place.

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I found the enemy edged away constantly;

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and as they went three feet to our one, they would never permit our closing with them, but took advantage of destroying our rigging; for though I closed the Rear-Admiral fast, I found that I could not gain close to the enemy, whose van was fairly drove from their line; but their admiral was joining them, by bearing away.

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By this time it was past six, and the enemy’s van and ours were at too great a distance to engage, I perceived some of their ships stretching to the northward; and I imagined they were going to form a new line.

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I made the signal for the headmost ships to tack, and those that led before with the larboard tacks to lead with the starboard, that I might, by the first, keep (if possible) the wind of the enemy, and, by the second, between the Rear-Admiral’s division and the enemy, as he had suffered most; as also to cover the INTREPID, which I perceived to be in very bad condition, and whose loss would give the balance very greatly against us, if they attacked us next morning as I expected.

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I brought to about eight that night to join the INTREPID, and to refit our ships as fast as possible, and continued doing so all night. The next morning we saw nothing of the enemy, though we were still lying to. Mahon was N.N.W about ten or eleven leagues. I sent cruisers to look out for the INTREPID and CHESTERFIELD, who joined me next day. And having, from a state and condition of the squadron brought me in, found, that the CAPTAIN, INTREPID, and DEFIANCE (which latter has lost her captain), were much damaged in their masts, so that they were in danger of not being able to secure their masts properly at sea; and also, that the squadron in general were very sickly, many killed and wounded, and nowhere to put a third of their number if I made an hospital of the forty-gun ship, which was not easy at sea; I thought it proper in this situation to call a council of war, before I went again to look for the enemy. I desired the attendance of General Stuart, Lord Effingham, and Lord Robert Bertie, and Colonel Cornwallis, that I might collect their opinions upon the present situation of Minorca and Gibraltar, and make sure of protecting the latter, since it was found impracticable either to succour or relieve the former with the force we had. So, though we may justly claim the victory, yet we are much inferior to the weight of their ships, though the numbers are equal; and they have the advantage of sending to Minorca their wounded, and getting reinforcements of seamen from their transports, and soldiers from their camp; all which undoubtedly has been done in this time that we have been lying to to refit, and often in sight of Minorca; and their ships have more than once appeared in a line from our mast-heads.
Admiral John Byng, 25 May, 1756.

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The battle was notable for the first time the French had targeted rigging. It was an minor tactical victory for the French (in as much as both fleets were still in being, but the British had failed to dislodge the French from the Mediterranean). However, Byng’s next move turned it into a strategic victory for the French.

The next day, the two fleets had lost contact. Admiral Byng called a council of war on his flagship, HMS Ramilles, which the officers of the fleet attended. The council of war resolved:-

Whether an attack on the French fleet gave any prospect of relieving Mahón ?
– Resolved: It did not.

Whether, if there were no French fleet cruising at Minorca, the British fleet could raise the siege ?
– Resolved: It could not.

Whether Gibraltar would not be in danger, should any accident befall Byng’s fleet?
– Resolved: It would be in danger.

Whether an attack by the British fleet in its present state upon that of the French would not endanger Gibraltar, and expose the trade in the Mediterranean to great hazards ?
– Resolved: It would.

Whether it is not rather for His Majesty’s service that the fleet should proceed immediately to Gibraltar ?
– Resolved: It should proceed to Gibraltar.

Byng’s fleet sailed for Gibraltar, leaving Port Mahón to its fate. On 27 June, it fell to the French when General Sir William Blakeney surrendered St Philip’s Castle.

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Minorca fell to the French, together with the strategically important port of Mahón.

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“What a scene Byng had open to him, and to throw it all away!”
Boscawen, on hearing of Byng’s withdrawal to Gibraltar.

Unbeknownst to the defeated fleet, Sir Edmund Hawke had sailed on 16 June to Gibraltar to take over the fleet from Admiral Byng, carrying the following orders.

Sir Edward Hawkes instructions
By the commissioners for executing the office of Lord high Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland &c.

Instructions for Sir Edward Hawke, Knight of the Bath, Vice Admiral of the White, hereby appointed commander-in-chief of His Majesty’s ships and vessels employ’d in and about the Mediterranean.

Whereas the King’s pleasure has been signified to us that we should give you directions to repair, without loss of time, to the Mediterranean, to supersede Admiral Byng in the command of His Majesty’s ships there; and that we should appoint some proper flag officer to serve under you in the room of Rear Admiral West: You are hereby required and directed forthwith to repair to Portsmouth, and embark on board His Majesty’s ship the Antelope together with Rear Admiral Saunders, whom we have directed to proceed with you and served under your commands and it being intended that Lord Tyrawley, whom the King has appointed Governor of Gibraltar in the room of Lieut. General Fowke, together with the Earl of Panmure (who is going thither in the room of Major-General Stewart, who is ordered to be recalled), shall proceed in the same ship: you are, as soon as those officers are on board, not to lose a moment is time in proceeding to Gibraltar (the captain of the Antelope being directed to follow your orders), and upon your arrival there, you are to deliver the enclosed packets to Admiral Byng and Rear Admiral West, and immediately take upon you the command of all of His Majesty’s ships, which you may find at Gibraltar, and any others that may be the Mediterranean, all their officers and companies being hereby enjoined to a strict obedience to your orders: and hoisting your flag on board such ship as you shall find from time to time find convenient, you are to assign any other, which you shall judge most fitting for Rear Admiral Saunders, and to take him also under your command.
You are to make an immediate and expeditions inquiry into the conduct and behaviour of the Captains of the ships hereby put under your command: and if you find any reason to believe any of them to have been tardy, and not to have acted with due spirit and vigour for the honour and service of the King and nation, You are forthwith to suspend such Captains and appoint others in their stead, in whom you can confide for properly executing their duty.
     You are to order the Captain of the Antelope to receive Admiral Byng and Rear Admiral West on board, and return them to Spithead, and if you shall suspend any of the Captains, you are to send them also home in her.
     Having done this, if you shall not be well assurance that Fort St. Philips upon the island of Minorca is in possession of the enemy, you are to use the utmost dispatch in repairing thither with your Squadron, and to exert yourself in doing everything that is possible to be done by you for its relief, and to attack, and to use your utmost endeavours to take, sink, burn or otherwise destroy any squadron of the Enemy’s ships, that may be employed to favour and assist in their attack upon that Fort.
If you shall find the enemy having succeeded, and are in the full possession of Minorca, you are however to endeavour by all means to destroy the French fleet in the Mediterranean, and for that purpose to employ the ships under your command in the most effectual manner you shall be able, and constantly to keep sufficient cruisers round the island of Minorca, and take great care that they exert all possible diligence to prevent the Enemy landing any troops, ammunition, stores or provisions upon that Island, and to annoy and distress them as much as possible: And, in general, you would you are to employ the most utmost vigilance and vigour to annoy and distress the Enemy everywhere within the Extent of your Command, and by every method in means in your power to protect Gibraltar from any Hostile attempts, and also Minorca, should the present attack upon it miscarry: And you were likewise to give all possible attention to the security of the trade of the King’s subjects in and about the Mediterranean and the taking of destroying of any privateers belonging to the Enemy.
     If any French Ships of War should escape your Squadron, and proceed out of the Mediterranean, you are forthwith to send to England a proportionable part of the ships under your command observing that you are never to keep more ships in the Mediterranean than shall be necessary for the performance of what is before recommended to you: And, that you may be better in able to perform the services expected of you, you are to take care and keep ships and vessels under your command in constant good condition, and to have them cleaned as often as shall be requisite for that purpose: and to do the same (if Minorca should be in the Enemy’s possession) either in some port in the King of Sardinia’s Domininions or at Gibraltar, as shall be most convenient.
     And whereas the King’s pleasure is signified to Lord Tyrawley, to cause the troops under his command to be disposed of as he shall see best for His Majesty’s Service, and the preservation of his possessions in the Mediterranean and that his Lordship does from time to time embark such Detachments, Stores, Arms and Ammunition, and provision for the relief of Minorca, as the commanding sea officer in the Mediterranean shall undertake to carry thither, and that he gives other assistance to the garrison of St Philip and the island of Minorca as shall be in his power, consistent with the safety of the Garrison of Gibraltar: you are to consult with Lord Tyrawley in relation to the said particulars, and to co-operate with him in everything that may tend to the good of the King’s service and the preservation of the possessions in the Mediterranean: And Lord Tyrawley being directed to establish an Hospital at Gibraltar, for the relief of sick and wounded men that may be sent thither from time to time from Minorca: you are to call such men to be transported from that Island to Gibraltar as often as possible.
And Whereas a number of transport will shortly depart from Plymouth, with two Battalions on board for Gibraltar and will be convoyed thither by the Jersey and Gosport: if the situation of matters shall be such as to require your detaining them or any of them for transporting forces from Gibraltar to Minorca, you are at liberty to keep them as may be wanting, taking care to dismiss and send them to England as soon as the service would admit of so doing, either under convoy of the Antelope, or if she shall be departed, of the first shall sell afterwards.
     In cases your disability, by sickness or otherwise, you are to leave these instructions, or any others which you shall receive from us, with Rear Admiral Saunders, who is hereby required to put the same in execution: And if this case should happen, every commander of His Majesty’s ships and vessels at Gibraltar, and in the Mediterranean, is hereby required and directed to put himself under the command of Rear Admiral Saunders, and follow his orders given, &c, the 8th June 1756
ANSON W ROWLEY. BATEMAN.
Rd EDGCUMBE
By &c. J. CLEVELAND.

It seems inconceivable that had Admiral Byng had these orders, he would have give up the chase against the French fleet and return to Gibraltar. But sail to Gibraltar he did, to be relieved of his command by Sir Edmund Hawke, and thence to be returned forthwith to England.

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Byng’s Plea

With thirteen ships to twelve says Byng
It were a shame to meet ’em
And then with twelve to twelve a thing
Impossible to beat ’em
When more to many less to few
And even still not right
Arithmatic will plainly shew
T’were wrong in Byng to fight.

The trial of Admiral Byng forms an important footnote to the Battle of Minorca.

News of the fleet action off Minorca reached Britain from de la Galissonniere’s published account on 2 June. Galissoniere reported that on 19 May the English “seemed unwilling to engage” and that on 20 May, “the English had the advantage of the wind, but still seemed unwilling to fight”; he expected to be attacked on 21 May, but “the English had disappeared”. This, and the loss of Minorca divided British public opinion on Byng’s conduct. His own account reached the Admiralty on 23 June, and a much edited version appeared in the London Chronicle on 26 June.

Byng returned to England in July 1756, where he was promptly arrested, pending a court martial. His trial began on board the St. George in Portsmouth Harbour on December 27th, and continued until January 27th, 1757.

Public opinion divided ahead of the trial.

Byng in horrors

“To the block with Newcastle and the yard arm for Byng”

Block and Yard arm

Alternatively, as a riposte to “Sing Tantararara, Hang Byng” a supportive popular ballard was sung by the London ballard singers.

Sing tarantara

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The furore resulted in the fall of the Government in December 1756, to be replaced by a new one led by William Pitt, with the Duke of Devonshire as Prime Minister.

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The trial of Admiral Byng began on board the St. George in Portsmouth Harbour on December 27th

Trial

and continued until January 27th, 1757. Crucial to the outcome would be the opinion of his brother officers in the Royal Navy. The public utterings were against him.

“No doubt but Mr Byng’s behaviour on the late occasion off Mahon must surprise and anger you and every right thinking man in the kingdom”

Captain S Faulknor

“Sad indeed: He’s brought more disgrace on the British flag than ever his father the great Lord Torrington did honour to it”.
Admiral Boscawen

 

The court-martial, summoned to try Byng, consisted of Vice Admiral Thomas Smith, who was president, Rear-Admirals Francis Holburne, Harry Norris and Thomas Broderick, and nine captains. After hearing the evidence, the court agreed to a number of resolutions or conclusions, including:

That when the British fleet, on the starboard tack, was stretched abreast, or was about abeam, of the enemy’s line, Admiral Byng should have caused his ships to tack together, and should have immediately borne right down on the enemy; his van steering for the enemy’s van, his rear for its rear, each ship making for the one opposite to her in the enemy’s line, under such sail as would have enabled the worst sailer to preserve her station in the line of battle.

That the Admiral retarded the rear division of the British fleet from closing with and engaging the enemy, by shortening sail, in order that the Trident and Princess Louisa might regain their stations ahead of the Ramalies; whereas he should have made signals to those ships to make more sail, and should have made so much sail himself as would enable the Culloden, the worst sailing ship in the Admiral’s division, to keep her station with all her plain sails set, in order to get down to the enemy with as much expedition as possible, and thereby properly support the division of Rear-Admiral West.

That the Admiral did wrong in ordering the fire of the Ramillies to be continued before he had placed her at proper distance from the enemy, inasmuch as he thereby not only threw away his shot, but also occasioned a smoke, which prevented his seeing the motions of the enemy and the positions of the ships immediately ahead of the Ramillies.

That after the ships which had received damage in the action had been refitted as circumstances would permit, the Admiral ought to have returned with his squadron off Port Mahon, and endeavoured to open communication with the castle, and to have used every means in his power for its relief, before returning to Gibraltar.

Thus Admiral Byng stood accused of violating article 12 of the Articles of War of the Royal Navy.

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At the trial, the testimony of two witnesses bore heavily against Admiral Byng; that of General Sir William Blakeney, commander of St Philip’s Castle on Minorca, and Captain Everett of the Buckingham, the flagship of Rear Admiral West. General Blakeney suggested that Byng could have landed troops at Port Mahon to help him defend St Philip’s Castle. Captain Everett suggested that Byng’s division in the Battle of Minorca has insufficent sail to close down upon the French, and thus lost the battle.

Everett

Byng conducted his own defence, and gave a spirited response.

Now instead of my retreating from an inferior Force, that a superior Force retreated from me, when the Fleet was unable to pursue, I shall manifest beyond all contradiction, and cannot help observing, that perhaps I am the first Instance of a Commander in Chief, whose disgrace proceeded from so unfortunate a mistake.

The court found that Byng had failed in his duty to relieve Minorca, specifically St. Philip’s Castle, and that he had failed to destroy the French squadron in battle.  They sentenced him to death on 27 January 1757 for failing to abide by the Articles of War according to Article 12.

The change in government had brought supporters of Byng to power, and he had hope that the conviction would be overturned, despite the fury of the public, and the hostility of his Naval colleagues. Unfortunately, a letter from Voltaire to Byng was found and suggested treason.

Voltaire Richlieu

An appeal for clemency to King George II was rejected, and Admiral John Byng died by firing squad at noon on the quarterdeck of Monarch on 14 March 1757.

The Battle of Minorca 1756 # 36

copy

 

SpacerPublic outrage at the execution of Admiral Byng

Sentence

Observation on article 12

 

led to the fall of the government.

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The two great opponents, the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt joined together to make a new government, lasting until 1763, with Pitt leading matters relating to defence and foreign policy, and The Duke of Newcastle leading the Commons, finance and patronage.

Voltaire commented in his novel Candide an ironic witticism on the fate of Admiral Byng.

The Battle of Minorca 1756 # 38

with the phrase “pour encourager les autres” entering into English sayings.

Dr Johnson, in Boswell’s Life of Johnson commented that “the nation has long been satisfied that his life was sacrificed to the political fervour of the times”, and reports the epitaph for Admiral Byng in the Torrington family vault in All Saint’s Church, Southill, Bedfordshire.

The Battle of Minorca 1756 # 39

 

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Albus

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1756 The Battle of Minorca Redux Thursday, Feb 12 2015 

Sea motive

Battle of Minorca redux 1756 banner

 

Sea motive

This restaging of the fleet action during the Battle of Minorca  has the number of ships used in the battle, with 12 Royal Navy ships of the line engaging 12 French ships of the line. The rules for the battle can be found here.

One difference to the real battle is to allow the winds (represented by the gods of the winds, the Venti) to change according to a dice roll at the end of each move. If the score is 1, the wind changes 1 point anticlockwise, 2-5 gives no change to the direction, and if a 6 is thrown, the wind changes 1 point clockwise. Likewise the strength of the wind may change, with a die roll of 1 decreasing it by one unit, 2-5 gives no change, and 6 increases it by one unit. Thus the capriciousness of the Venti can decide the fleet action on the day as the winds work in favour of one or other fleet, due to their possession of the weather gauge.

The fleets assume the positions used on the day, approximately those before the battle began at 13:45. The French ships form line ahead, and sail West. The English also form line ahead, intercepting them on a course heading North West.

The initial weather conditions match those at the start of the battle, with Afer Ventus, the south west wind blowing, at a mild strength.

 

 

Move 1

The white squadron of France (L’Orphee, Hippopotame, Redoutable & Triton) lead, sailing close hauled, followed astern by their red squadron, headed by Admiral de la Galissonière in his flagship, the Foydroyant. If the ships continue on their present course, the French will be able to ensure they overlap the English fleet, sailing beam reached, unless they change tack.

Aboard HMS Captain, leading the white squadron, the fighting instructions make clear their duty.

“As soon as the Admiral shall hoist a Red Flag on the Flag-staff at the Fore-top-mast-head, and fire a Gun, every Ship in the Fleet is to use their utmost Endeavour to engage the Enemy in the Order the Admiral has prescribed unto them.”

Sail at’em to intersect, and begin an action. Astern, HMS Intrepid, and the rest of the fleet follows. So far, only the L’Orphee and Hippopotame are visible from the French fleet at the bottom left hand side.
SAM_5377

The Venti are consulted, and Afer Ventus tires a little, and the wind drops back a notch, which will slow the approach of each fleet.

 

Move 2

SAM_5378

 

HMS Captain, leads the white squadron, followed by HMS IntrepidHMS Revenge and HMS Trident, sailing on a course to intersect the French fleet, led by L’Orphee, Hippopotame and Redoutable. The sailors have their sails set, and unless the winds change their mind, they must wait until they close the range and the battle can begin. The Venti are consulted, and the wind reduces by one.

 

Move 3

SAM_5379

The fleets continue, with the Royal Navy red squadron now seen behind the white, led by HMS Ramillies, the flagship of Admiral Byng, and HMS Culloden. Behind the main fleet,  sails the frigate HMS Phoenix.

Afer Ventus tires, and the wind swings from the South West to West, as Favonius takes up the cudgel, at the same strength.

W D&S (1)

Move 4

SAM_5380

Onwards the fleets sail, as slowly the gap is closed. Le Guerrier joins the rear of the French line. The wind remains the same.

W D&S (1)

Move 5

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The French line is joined by the frigate Topaze to the lee of their line.  The Engish red squadron is now joined by another ship, HMS Kingston, behind HMS Culloden.

Time still for a sailors utterance from the Common Book of Prayer; Special Prayers with respect to the Enemy.

THOU, O Lord, art just and powerful: O defend our cause against the face of the enemy.
O God, thou art a strong tower of defence to all that flee unto thee: O save us from the violence of the enemy.
O Lord of hosts, fight for us, that we may glorify thee. O suffer us not to sink under the weight of our sins, or the violence of the enemy.
O Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for thy Name’s sake.

Favonius strengthens; slowly, steadily, bringing the fleets together.

W D&S (1)

Move 6

SAM_5382

The red squadron for the Royal Navy is now on the board as HMS Deptford is seen. In La Royal, the Fier & Foudroyant join their red squadron on the board.

Favonius continues, stronger still.

W D&S (1)

Move 7

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In La Royal, the Temeraire join their red squadron on the board.

Afer Ventus takes over again, at the same strength.

W D&S (1)

Move 8

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W D&S (1)

Move 9

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W D&S (1)

Move 10

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Move 11

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Move 12

SAM_5392

Move 13

SAM_5393

Move 14

SAM_5394

Move 15

SAM_5398

Move 16

SAM_5399

Move 17

SAM_5400

Move 18

SAM_5401

Move 19

SAM_5403

Move 20

SAM_5404

Move 21

SAM_5405

Move 22

SAM_5406

Move 23

SAM_5407

Move 24

SAM_5408

Move 25

SAM_5409

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Battle of Minorca 1756 redux

Albus

The Battle of Leuthen 5 December 1757 Wednesday, Dec 5 2012 

Vauban Tile 500 pixels
LeuthenBanner

Vauban Tile 500 pixels

The Battle of Leuthen was fought in Silesia between the Prussian army under the command of Frederick the Great and the Austrian and Imperialist army under the command of Prince Charles of Lorraine. It is a textbook example of how a smaller army may defeat a larger opponent given guile and audacity. The battle formed part of the start of the Seven Years War, the first global conflict of the modern era fought in Europe, America and in the far east.

The story begins in the settlement from the earlier War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) which led to the rise of Prussia.

Leuthen 1757 (2)

The Prussians under Frederick the Great had conquered Silesia in the Silesian Wars fought against Austria. The capture of this rich province reduced the Hapsburg Austrian Monarchical lands and made their strategic position harder in maintaining their role as a powerful state in Europe, with territorial interests in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), Lombardy and other regions of Italy, complicated further by the exposure to the Ottoman Empire to the south. Clearly Prussia would have to be tackled in a future conflict. Britain had been a strategic ally of Austria since the accession of William of Orange sparked the long duel in Europe with Louis XIV (which would eventually culminate in 1815). Its help to Austria in the recent war was limited, and certainly couldn’t be counted on in a new struggle to regain Silesia from Prussia. The problem to Austria festered like a sore.

Frederick was a noted Francophile and welcomed all things French, including their support in the war. His Uncle George II of England and Elector of Hanover disliked Frederick. The two had minor territorial disputes in parts of Germany between Hanover and Prussia and familial disagreements.

“A bad friend, a bad ally, a bad relation, a bad neighbour, the most ill disposed and dangerous Prince in Europe.”
George II on Frederick the Great

With no love between them, Frederick looked to France to guarantee Prussia against any possible interventions, especially on their exposed borders with Hanover. Likewise, sandwiched between France and Prussia, Hanover and George II looked to Austria and Russia for diplomatic security based on armed forces. France and Britain, were implacable enemies, and faced each other across the globe as colonial rivals.

These amities and enmities set the Quadrille of power which governed the European peace after the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748).

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Frederick the Great extended Prussia’s military capabilities in the ensuing peace, but also developed his interests in philosophy and in music, being the very model of an enlightenment ruler, who both made and wrote history. He published his thoughts on politics and warfare (Histoire de mon temps, Discours sur la Guerre, Instructions du Roi de Prusse pour ses Généraux among many other works), always using French. He took his fathers main inheritance seriously, ensuring that the army was drilled to perfection; an instrument of state to be used whenever required.

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Peace between Britain and France could not last forever. Conflict broke out in 1754 in North America between French and British colonialists in the French and Indian war, which eventually merged into the Seven Years War.

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At the outbreak of the second Silesian war between Prussia and Austria, a secret treaty had been signed between Prussia and France in 1744. This was due to expire in ten years time, and acted as a guarantee to Prussia and its antagonisms with Austria. France and Austria had been rivals for centuries due to strategic encirclement between Hapsburg Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the state expansions of Louis XIV and the series of wars he triggered. Frederick the Great could not believe that this enmity could be overcome.

The Appointment of Count von Kaunitz was to prove the trigger for the diplomatic revolution between Austria and France. Despite the rivalry, Kaunitz planned on a rapprochement which would seal Prussia’s fate.

Leuthen 1757 (6)

Perhaps France could be enticed with the Austrian Netherlands, the old battle ground of Louis XIV‘s wars. This would be bound to provoke a response from Britain and the Netherlands, the Maritime powers that stood against Louis XIV.

In addition, Russia could absorb Eastern Prussia. The Empress Elizabeth of Russia  had deep personal animosity towards Frederick, given the personal slights he had made to her. Finally, Sweden could be tempted to take Pomerania.

Despite these obvious gains for all parties, France would not yet come to terms with Austria.

Britain looked to Russia in 1755, with a subsidy convention to station Russian troops near the Prussian borders as a means of preventing Frederick the Great from interfering with Hanover. Despite this, Britain felt compelled to court the Prussians directly, which led to the Treaty of Westminster in January 1756, between Britain and Prussia.

Leuthen 1757 (7)

Each party guaranteed the neutrality of Germany, thus hopefully securing the borders between Hanover and Prussia.

The effect of this treaty was immediate. France finally responding to overtures from Austria. Russia failed to ratify the agreement with Britain. and with the prize of territorial gains in East Prussian, sought to join any likely coalition against Prussia, even if it meant war with Britain.

Nivernais, the French ambassador sent to Prussia to assess the situation gave the following character assessment of Frederick .

“Impetuous, vain, presumptuous, scornful, restless, but also attentive, kind and easy to get on with. A friend of truth and reason. He prefers great ideas to others – likes glory and reputation but cares not a rap what his people think of him… He knows himself very well but the funny thing is that he is modest about what is good in him and boastful about his shortcomings. Well aware of his faults, but more anxious to conceal them to correct them. Beautiful speaking voice… I think that, both as a matter of principle and character, he is against war. He will never allow himself to be attacked, as much from vanity as from prudence – he will find out what his enemies are planning and attack them suddenly before they are quite ready. Woe to them if they are not strong, and woe to him if a well organised league should force him into a sustained effort of great length.”

Duc de Nivernais, 1756

These prescient words spoke of the future, unknown at the time.

The quadrille of European power play had resulted in a change of partners.

Leuthen 1757 (9)

Austria and France now pledged mutual support in the event that either was attacked, with France pledging not to attack the Austrian Netherlands, and Austria to remain neutral in an war between France and Britain.

Events now moved swiftly. The renversement des alliances between France and Austria as envisaged by Kaunitz was formalised in the Treaty of Versailles in May 1756.

Leuthen 1757 (8)

But still France could not be persuaded to attack Prussia.  War broke out in 1756 between France and Britain, with the capture of Minorca in June. Austria and Russia had planned invading Prussia in 1756, but the diplomacy exceeded the dilatory nature of military preparations, so the attack was postponed until 1757.

Prussia had some 5 million to fight a combined strength of some 100 million between the three main enemies drawn up against him, and would be outnumbered in strategic manpower by 20:1. In a short war, Prussia could prevail; in a long war, only endure. The borders of Saxony, to the south of Prussia, were only a few days march to Berlin. Attacking and conquering Saxony, an independent state would be an act of war, but would buy the Prussians space in a defensive war, together with potential recruits to their army, material and money. Frederick’s maxim ‘Better to anticipate than to be anticipated’ hinted at his intentions.

‘Negotiations without arms are like music without instruments’
Frederick the Great

Final diplomatic overtures with Vienna in August 1756 failed to resolve any issues between Prussia and Austria. Frederick pointed to picture of Maria Theresa in his study and said to the British ambassador ‘That Lady wants war, and she shall soon have it’.

Seizing the initiative, Prussia launched a pre-emptive attack on Saxony on 29 August 1756. This cast Prussia in the role of aggressor and pushed the diplomatic revolution to its final conclusion. A major European war was now certain.

Leuthen 1757 (10)

The battle of Lobositz was fought on 1st October 1756 by 35,000 Austrian troops under the command of von Browne. He arranged his army to hold strong defensive ground; hilly ground to secure his right flank, the village of Lobositz in the centre, and the left flank with the bulk of his force behind marshy ground.

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The Austrian artillery made a deep effect on the Prussians, who had never experienced such fierce bombardment, as this account recalls.

‘When the cannon at first spoke out, one of the shots carried away half the head of my comrade Krumholtz. He had been standing right next to me, and my face was spattered with earth, and brains and fragments of skull. My musket was plucked from my shoulder and shattered in a thousand pieces, but in spite of everything, I remained unscathed, thanks be to God.’
Musketeer Reiss

The cannonade even took staff members near Frederick. After being urged to seek shelter, he replied ‘I did not come to avoid them’.  The battle went initially badly for the Prussians, who were unable to dislodge the Austrians on their right flank, and conducted wasteful cavalry attacks on the Austrian centre against Lobositz. Eventually the Prussian infantry, under Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern, broke the Austrian right flank on the hill, and the village of Lobositz fell after further determined combat. The Prussians were victorious, but suffered 10% casualties in the battle, the Austrians 8%.

Chastened by the experience  Frederick wrote:

‘We will have to be very careful not to attack them like a pack of Hussars. Nowadays they are up to all sorts of ruses, and, believe me, unless we can bring up a lot of cannon, we will lose a vast number of men before we can gain the upper hand’.

The Austrian army retreated, and the Prussians closed in on the isolated, starving Saxon army, who surrendered on the 15th October 1756.

Leuthen 1757 (12)

The soldiers of the Saxon army were enrolled into Prussian service en mass.

Frederick was present in person while they forced the soldiers to swear allegiance to him. The auditors murmured the words of this so called oath of loyalty in front of the men, and those who refused were punished by the Prussian soldiers… The king so far forgot himself as to use his own stick on a young nobleman, an ensign in the regiment of Crousatz, and he told him: ‘You must be totally devoid of ambition and honour, not to wish to enter the Prussian service!’
Lieutenant General Vitzthum

With his army surrendered, the Elector of Saxony and king of Poland Augustus III fled to Warsaw. Frederick‘s Gambit had paid off, describing the opening of the war as‘setting out the pieces in a game of chess’. Later he remarked ‘To read the newspapers you might think that a pack of kings and princes was bent on hunting me down like a stag, and that they were inviting their friends to the chase. As for myself I am absolutely determined not to oblige them in that respect. In fact, I am confident that I am the one to do the hunting.’

The price that Saxony paid was harsh; the country was heavily taxed for the duration of the war, to an extent that even Frederick acknowledged privately was burdensome.

‘I spared that beautiful country as far as possible but now it is utterly devastated. Miserable madmen that we are: with only a moment to live we make that moment as harsh as we can; amusing ourselves with the destruction of the masterpieces of of industry and of time, we leave an odious memory of our ravages and the calamities which they cause’.
Frederick the Great to Algarotti, 1760.

The armies of Europe went into winter quarters, preparing for the trials that 1757 would bring.

The states of Europe at the critical juncture of 1757 are shown in the satirical cartoon below.

Leuthen 1757 (100)

Maria Theresa  “Now, sir, mind what you are about. I have a notch more than you”

Frederick the Great  “I don’t mind your notch, madam, though I design to have a good stroke at you this time, so mind your eye. Stand out of the way monsieur (Louis XV). I design to send this ball to the She-Bear yonder”

Elizabeth of Russia  “I am coming to help you, madam. If you are tired, I will bowl for you.”

Francis I  “Ah, Boy, there was a time when I could play with the best of them.”

George II  “Ay, ay, never mind. I warrant I’ll get some notches. And if I find the odds against, I’ll hedge off. I can’t say I like her bowling. She seems not to tire.”

Augustus III  “I can play no more, I have had such a dam’d knock.”

In the background are Turkey and the umpires; the neutral powers of Holland and Spain. The scorers (the King of Sweden and Duke of Brunswick) are seated on the ground, notching the sticks to count the tally.

Leuthen 1757 (13)

Mitchell, the British Ambassador, met with Frederick on 4 May 1757, shortly before the battle of Prague. He found Frederick in good spirits.

‘He was very hearty and cheerful, and told me in a day or two the battle of Pharsalia between the Houses of Austria and Brandenberg would be fought’.
Mitchell

Clearly Frederick had in mind some decisive battle that would settle the war between Austria and Prussia.

The Austrians, under the command of Archduke Charles and von Browne had some 60,000 men, placed on the western hills to the city of Prague. Frederick commanders had some 115,000 men at his disposal, after the second main army under  Schwerin and Winderfeldt joined forces with his. 30,000 men under Keith marched to the west to cut off any Austrian retreat, and these troops played no part in the battle. having learnt from their experience at Lobositz, the Prussian main army did not assault the Austrians in a frontal attack on mountainous ground, but sought to attack in the flank by marching around the Austrians and approaching by the more gentle slopes of the Tabor Berg.

The Prussians began marching around their enemy at 7am, but were not in position until late morning, giving the Austrians time to move some troops to counter this threat.

At this point in the war, the Prussian infantry assaulted with their muskets shouldered, to intimidate their opponents. The vanguard attacks were swept by Austrian cannon fire, and the leading Prussian regiments lost up to 50% casualties, including Generals Schwerin , who was decapitated by cannister.

Under this heavy fire the initial Prussian assault fell back, then broke; at 10:30 the battle was evenly balanced. von Browne, the Austrian commander facing this assault ordered his men forward, but in the process opened up a gap between his force and the main Austrian army, still facing along the Ziska Berg under the command of Archduke Charles. von Browne lost his leg to a cannon shot and fell mortally wounded, and so leaderless, the Austrian counterattack broke down. The Prussians found the gap between the two wings in the Austrian line, and began to roll up the main Austrian army, causing them to retreat.

‘Now our fine and agreeable day was plunged into gloom. The whole air was darkened by powder smoke, and by the dust thrown up by the thousands of men and horses. It was like the last day of the world’.
Anhalt Musketeer

The Prussian assault pressed on, causing more chaos and casualties in the Austrian army. Archduke Charles became stricken with a paralysis, and leaderless, their army began to fall back into the city of Prague. The Prussians had won the battle.

Leuthen 1757 (14)

The Austrian army lost 14,000 men, with some 5,000 of these captured. The Prussians lost 14,300 casualties, about 21% of the initial force.

‘The battle at Prague must be the greatest and bloodiest in history.’
Frederick

‘Hardly any battle up to the present time has been more murderous. We are condemned to the lamentable fate of  earning our laurels with the blood of multitudes of brave men, with tears and endless affliction.’
von Donnersmarck

The price of victory had been high. The highly trained Prussian officers and infantry were being bled to death by the rate of casualties in the battles fought so far.

The remaining Austrian force under Archduke Charles was inside the city of Prague. Frederick hoped to repeat the fate of the Saxon army, and force the capitulation of the Austrians by starvation. The heavy siege artillery made its way to Prague and opened up the attack on 29 May.

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By 4 June, it was clear that insufficient damage had been done to the city to cause the much sought surrender, despite the damage inflicted. Reports came in of an army of relief under Marshal von Daun, moving into eastern Bohemia.  Bevern was given an army of 25,000 men with orders to push von Daun‘s men away from Prague.

On 13 June, Frederick marched with more troops towards Bevern and his men. By the 16 June, the Prussian strength had risen to some 33,000 men. Close by were the Austrians, with 53,000 men, although this number of troops were not known by the Prussians. On 18 June, the Austrians took position along a series of hills above the Kasier Strasse, the main road in central Europe. von Daun‘s army deployed along the Przerovsky and Krzeczhorz hills. Despite being outnumbered, Frederick would attempt the flanking maneuver of Prague, some six weeks earlier, and wheel the army around to attack the Austrians on the Krzeczhorz hills. These movements were seen by von Daun, who moved part of his reserve to meet the attack.

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Major General Hülsen led the Prussian assault, which started to engage at 2pm. Initially successful, Hülsen’s men ran into the Austrian division of Wird, sent by von Daun

Instead of waiting for more progress from Hülsen’s attack, Frederick ordered the troops of Prince Moritz to attack the main ridge, deviating from the initial plan.

‘For the third time Frederick called out: ‘Prince Moritz, form into line!’ The prince repeated: ‘Forwards, forwards!’ At this the king galloped up and halted with the muzzle of his horse against the Prince’s saddle: ‘For God’s sake’, he shouted, ‘form front when I tell you to do so!’ The Prince at last gave the appropriate order in a sorrowful tone of voice, and he commented… ‘now the battle is lost!’
Duncker

Frederick’s change of mind may have been prompted by him detecting the movement of Austrians towards their right flank, thus denuding their centre. But von Dauns men were more plentiful than Frederick knew, and the Prussians advanced into the prepared killing grounds of the Austrian army. Survivors recall hearing the sound of canister balls sounding like hailstones on the bayonets on the infantry, which pointed skywards, as they advanced with shouldered arms.

The Prussian assaults continued throughout the afternoon to no avail. Some progress was made by the cavalry under Major General von Krosigk, south of Krzeczhorz, until the commander fell.

His courage and zeal for the service were undiminished by two bad sword cuts which he received in the head. But a lethal canister shot, which took him in the stomach below the breastplate, at last threw him to the ground… A dragoon saw him fall. He testified that he was still able to call out: ‘Lads, I can do no more. The rest is up to you!’
Pauli

The command was taken up by von Seydlitz.

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Frederick rallied unit after unit, imploring them to achieve the seemingly impossible. By  Krzeczhorz, one last push by the Prussian cavalry and infantry almost carried the day, until a counter attack by the Austrian de Ligne Dragoons won the day for von Dauns men.

The Austrians had finally beaten the Prussians, after losing the previous eight previous battles across two wars. The Austrians had suffered 8,000 casualties, or 15% of their total, whereas the Prussians had 14,000 casualties, or 44%.

Frederick was temporarily stunned by the failure.

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The remainder of the Prussian army withdrew, and lifted the siege of Prague on 20 June, falling back into northern Bohemia.

In contrast, on receiving the news of the victory of Kolin, Empress Maria Theresa declared 19 June as the founding day of the Militär Maria-Theresien-Orden, with Marshal von Daun its first recipient.

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After the battle of Kolin, Frederick took to writing poetry to console himself.

Pour moi, menacé du naufrage,
Je dois, en affrontant l’orage,
Penser, vivre et mourir en roi.

In the face of the storm,
and the threat of shipwreck,
I must think, live and die like a king.

An even more telling poem he wrote to his sister, Wilhemina, reveals his inner turmoil. The metre is lost in translation from the original in French, but the meaning is plain.

Discord, charmed to see such an America, and feeble mortals crossing the Ocean to exterminate one another, addresses the European Kings: ‘How long will you be slaves to what are called laws? Is it for you to bend under worn-out notions of justice, right? Mars is the one God: Might is Right. A King’s business is to do something famous in this world.’

And thou, loved People, whose happiness is my charge, it is thy lamentable destiny; it is the danger which hangs over thee, that pierces my soul. The pomps of my rank I could resign without regret. But to rescue thee, in this black crisis, I will spend my heart’s blood. Whose IS that blood but thine? With joy will I rally my warriors to avenge thy affront; defy death at the foot of the ramparts, and either conquer, or be buried under thy ruins.

Frederick the Great

But events were no longer his to dictate, and a French army under the command of the Duc d’Estrées put to the field, defeating a combined Anglo-Prussian army under the command of the Duke of Cumberland at the battle of Hastenbach on 26 July. On August 30, the Russian army defeated the Prussians in East Prussia at the battle of Gross-Jägersdorf. Another Franco-Imperialist army began to march towards Thuringia. The Imperialist army contigent, the Reichsexecutionarmee, comprised of men from different states within the Holy Roman Empire in Germany that owed allegiance to Austria.

‘Prudence and audacity may be alternated but not mixed. Having gone to war, it is vain to shrink from facing the hazards inseparable from it.’
Churchill

Frederick needed a decisive victory over the Franco-Imperialist army to regain the strategic initiative. Only audacity would serve this, so on 25 August he divided his army, and took 25,000 men to pursue the approaching Franco-Imperialists, leaving some 41,000 men to face the Austrians in Bohemia. von Seydlitz led the Garde du Corps, having been promoted by Frederick, who recognised in him his coup d’œil, so necessary for cavalry command in this era.

Leuthen 1757 (20)

The army marched west, across Saxony, attempting to close with the Franco-Imperialists under the joint command of Soubise and Hildburghausen. The two armies nearly engaged at Gotha on 16 September, but the Franco-Imperialists withdrew when threatened. A raid on Berlin by a small Austrian force caused the Prussians to withdraw back across the river Saale to Torgau. The Franco-Imperialists pursued him, crossing the Saale, and presented Frederick, with his chance of decisive battle. The pursuit began in earnest, and the Reichsexecutionarmee just cleared the Saale at Weissenfels on 30 October.

The Prussians again crossed the river, and by 5 November the long sort combat came to fruition at Rossbach. The Reichsexecutionarmee comprised some 10,900 men; the French some 30,200, a total of 41,100. The Prussians had 21,000 men to oppose them. Again, Frederick would be outnumbered, this time by 2:1. On the morning of the battle, the Franco-Imperialist army formed into 3 columns of march, with the intention of attacking the flank of the Prussian army, still in camp upon the hills above Rossbach.

Leuthen 1757 (21)

The move was spotted by midday, and the Prussians swiftly reacted by pulling up their tents and forming into battle order. The Franco-Imperialists saw the Prussian reaction to their move, and took it as a sign that the Prussians were retreating. Instead, taking advantage of the hilly ground, the Prussians were marching to ‘cross the T‘ of the Franco-Imperialist advance.

von Seydlitz, in command of the Prussian cavalry, attacked the advancing Franco-Imperialist cavalry, routing them.

Leuthen 1757 (22)

Rather than following them, von Seydlitz reorganized the victorious Prussian cavalry, ready for another attack in the next stage of the battle.

Frederick wheeled the Prussian infantry into a line of battle, forming a shallow ‘V’ at the point of intersection to the advancing Franco-Imperialist columns. The Prussian infantry shattered the front of this attack, and the Franco-Imperialist infantry reeled back in retreat onto their advancing troops, spreading confusion. Soon the entire Franco-Imperialist army was in confusion, and at this moment, von Seydlitz led the Prussian cavalry in for another devastating flank attack.

Leuthen 1757 (23)

The Franco-Imperialists ran for their lives, and the battle was won for the Prussians. For the loss of some 550 men, the Prussians had inflicted some 10,000 casualties, the majority captured. Frederick had his desired victory.

Darkness fell about 5pm, and Frederick intended on staying in a nearby castle. It was full of wounded French officers, so the King, an avowed Francophile moved to a house close by, and lodged in the servants quarter.

‘I can now die in peace, because the reputation and honour of my nation have been saved. We may still be overtaken by misfortune, but we will bever be disgraced.’
Frederick

All Europe recognised the scale of this victory, and the inspirational force behind it.

‘We must not forget that we are dealing with a prince who is at once his own commander in the field, chief minister, logistical organiser, and, when necessary, provost-marshal. These advantages outweigh all our badly executed and badly combined expedients.’
Cardinal Bernis

Having dealt with the threat from the west, the Prussians could turn once again to the Austrians in the east.

Leuthen 1757 (24)

The strategic situation deteriorated for the Prussians in Silesia during November. The Austrian army, under the command of Prince Charles and von Daun managed to outmaneuver the outnumbered Prussian army under the Duke of Bevern. At the battle of Breslau on 22 November, the Prussians suffered a heavy defeat, and the remainder of this force retreated.

Leuthen 1757 (25)

Frederick had to engage and defeat the numerically superior Austrians before winter set in, and drive their army from Silesia. One more supreme effort would be needed from his men. Normally a strict disciplinarian, Frederick changed his style of leadership before the battle of Leuthen, offering atonement to the remainder of Bevern’s army, in exchange for future good conduct in the forthcoming battle. He circulated freely among his troops to hear their stories and offer his encouragement.

He called his general staff to his tent on the morning of 4 December, to give the Parchwitz address.

Leuthen 1757 (26)

Leuthen 1757 (28)

The do or die sentiment made the situation plain to all, and the address survived long after the event as a reminder of the nature of the struggle that the Prussians faced.

The Prussian army moved forwards to Breslau, with the aim of bringing the Austrians to battle. Prince Charles and von Daun concurred and moved their army towards Leuthen, occupying the ridge across the town. With 66,000 men  and 210 guns, the Austrians believed they could defend against attack from the impetuous Prussians. Frederick had only 39,000 men and 170 guns. Once again, he would have to defeat an enemy superior in numbers on chosen ground, suited to defence.

Leuthen 1757 (102)

Early on the morning of 5 December, the Prussian army rose, with light snow on the ground.

The troopers were standing by their horses and clapping their hands to keep warm. ‘good morning Gardes du Corps!’ ‘The same to you, Your Majesty!’ replied an old cavalryman. ‘How goes it?’ enquired the king. ‘Well enough, but its bloody cold!’ ‘Have a little patience, lads, today is going to be a little too hot!’
Hildebrandt

The Prussians moved towards the Austrian position, with infantry columns in the centre, flanked by cavalry on each side, and an advance guard ahead, with Frederick.

Leuthen 1757 (103)

Leuthen 1757 (29)

Leuthen 1757 (104)

The advance guard drew up before the village of Borne, and the Prussians attacked and scattered or captured the Austrian Hussar outposts.  At leisure,  Frederick surveyed the Austrian position. His army had emerged about the centre of the Austrian army, deployed along the hills that straddled the town of Leuthen. The Austrian right wing was secure against woods, but their left wing was exposed, with no cover. The Prussians knew this ground intimately, as it was the place the army performed its autumnal pre-war maneuvers. Once again, Frederick would employ a flank attack to compensate for his lack of men. To aid this, the Prussians launched the advance guard beyond the village of Borne, which convinced Prince Charles that the Prussians would attack his centre.

Leuthen 1757 (105)

He correspondingly moved reserves to counter this apparent threat. Late in the morning, the Prussian army swung south and marched out of view from the Austrian high command, their movements being shielded by a series of low hills.

Leuthen 1757 (30)

The Prussians had disappeared, apparently retreating before a superior force. The Austrians did not move from their ridge, and were content to let the Prussians go.

Leuthen 1757 (106)

But the Prussians were working their way South, towards the village of  Lobetinz, before swinging their way back to the North East. During the later stages of the march, the Prussians managed to convert their columns of march to lines of attack in their formidable oblique order as the army swung around between the villages of Lobetinz and Sagschutz.

Leuthen 1757 (101)

Leuthen 1757 (31)

The Austro- Imperialist troops were largely unaware of the storm about to break on them. At the extreme left of the  Austro- Imperialist left flank were Württemburgers and Bavarians, not the best troops in their army.

Leuthen 1757 (107)

Facing them in the vanguard, were elite Prussian units of the 26th (Meyerinck) and 13th (Itzenplitz) infantry regiments. Prior to the attack, Frederick addressed the men, and let them know of the importance of success.

Leuthen 1757 (32)

After an initial resistance by the Württemburgers, the  Austro- Imperialist infantry retreated.

Leuthen 1757 (108)

A cavalry counter attack led by Nádasdy was repulsed by the Prussian cavalry of the right, led by Zieten, with the Prussians victorious.  The Austrian cavalry fled, and the Prussian cavalry pursued the easier target of the routing Austro- Imperialist infantry.

Leuthen 1757 (109)

The Austrian army faced the collapse of their left wing.  Prince Charles ordered the army to take up a new position at right angles to its original line, to face the Prussians square on.  The line would run either side of the town of Leuthen, which would become the linchpin of the new position.

Leuthen 1757 (110)

Leuthen 1757 (33)

The redeployment was slow, with the second Austrian line moving first, then reserves, and finally the troops to the north of the original position. This led to a unsteady delivery of troops to the new front.

Leuthen 1757 (111)

The Prussian infantry stormed the town of Leuthen after fierce fighting. The position for the Austrian army was now critical, and a counterattack urgently needed.

Leuthen 1757 (34)

The Austrian cavalry of the right flank, under the command of Luchasse was originally deployed to the North. They swept down across the plain towards the left wing of the Prussian army, extended around the Butter Berg, along the new line of battle by Leuthen.

Leuthen 1757 (112)

This was intercepted in turn by the Prussian cavalry of the left wing, under the command of Dreisen.

Leuthen 1757 (113)

A fierce mêlée broke out, with the Prussian Bayreuth Dragoons, the heroes of the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in 1745 just holding their own, until the second line of Prussian Cuirassiers arrived to scatter the Austrians.

Leuthen 1757 (35)

The Prussian cavalry then ploughed into the exposed flank of the Austrian infantry, and their army collapsed, and routed.

Leuthen 1757 (114)

Whole units ran for their lives, being pursued by Prussian cavalry and infantry.  Only darkness saved the Austrians from a greater disaster from that which befell them, with over 33% of their army casualties by the evening. Frederick ordered a small pursuit force of cavalry and infantry to follow the fleeing Austrians, reaching a bridge across the river Wistritz.

Leuthen 1757 (36)

As the snows fell,  Frederick entered a nearby castle, to find it full of wounded Austrian officers. ‘Good evening gentlemen; certainly you weren’t expecting me here.’ he said by way of introduction, before making off for another location.

In the darkness, the victorious Prussian army marched and reorganised. A lone Prussian soldier began singing Rinckart’s Lutheran hymn ‘Now we all thank our God’ (based on Sirach:50 v22 – 24), and the song was taken up by the army.

Leuthen 1757 (37)

Described by many later, this vivid experience of survival, and thanks in the face of the adversities of the eighteenth century battlefield became the legend of the Leuthen Chorale.

The pursuit proper of the Austrian army began on the 7 December, with the Austrians fleeing towards Bohemia.

Leuthen 1757 (38)

‘Just imagine a cloudburst descending from the hills with thunder and lightning, and flooding the valley at the foot. In the same way we saw countless troops flowing under our eyes. Every street became a river of men, and every lane a torrent.’
Belach

By the 21 December, further Austrian troops surrounded in the Schweidnitzer Tor surrendered, a total of 17,000 men.  The Austrian army had lost over 66% of their total, and Frederick had won the most famous victory of the age.

Leuthen 1757 (200)

The battle has kept the Prussians in the war, although no-one knew at that time the conflict would continue until 1763.

Leuthen 1757 (39)

With joy will I rally my warriors to avenge thy affront; defy death at the foot of the ramparts, and either conquer, or be buried under thy ruins.

Frederick the Great

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The Battle of Leuthen 5 December 1757 Redux Wednesday, Dec 5 2012 

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A wargame exploring the Battle of Leuthen is described below.

Leuthen 1757 (102)

The schematic of the battlefield above have been scaled down to fit our beloved bit of 5′ by 4′ for the wargame recreation. The scale used is board 1mm = battlefield 2 m; each move represents 5 minutes, and each figure represents 100-120 men using 25mm figures. Thus our 5′ by 4′ board rescales to 3 by 2.4 km on the battlefields. The rules used in the games are here.

The number of troops need to be reduced accordingly to keep the troop density equivalent. The Battle of Leuthen  had 66,000 Imperialist troops (mostly Austrians, with some Bavarians and Württembergers) facing 39,000 Prussians. Reducing the scale down by a factor of approximately 2 gives an order of battle for Leuthen thus.

Battle of Leuthen Redux Order of Battle

In these battles, we use the principle of Sauve qui peut to define the level of losses (in terms of base units of 2 figures) sustained by each side before mass panic sets in. The levels are shown below for the battle.

Leuthen 1757 Sauve qui peut

For both sides, once the threshold of base unit losses exceed the following total percentages at the specified time on the battlefield, a random number is created (by the linked excel spreadsheet, or a scientific calculator) to ascertain if mass panic has set in, and the rules of Sauve qui peut apply to mass panic.

The generals refighting the battle use suspension of disbelief, so that if enemy troops are bearing down unseen upon your own because of the restriction in visibility due to dead ground and hills, you cannot react until they would emerge… as happened during the original battle.

The account of the wargames is given at quarter hour intervals across the battle; the high view shared by our Olympians who reflect on the action below.

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Leuthen Wordle

1:00 pm

“In War, the skin of a fox is at times as necessary as that of the lion, for cunning may succeed when force fails. Since, therefore, force may at one time be repelled by force, and at another be obliged to yield to stratagem, we ought to be well acquainted with the use of both, that we may on occasion adopt either.”

Of the Tricks and Stratagems of War, Military Instructions, Frederick the Great.

The Prussians led by their cunning fox and lion, Frederick the Great, have moved forward to engage the Austrians and sundry Imperialists in an attempt to destroy their army and drive them from Silesia. the same territory he stole from his antagonists some ten years earlier.  With the great victory of Rossbach barely a month ago, morale is high in the Prussian army.

The Austrians led by Charles of Lorraine, and his subordinate general Count von Daun are confident that the ridge they have chosen to occupy across the village of Leuthen can be defended against this impulsive foe.  The Battle of Kolin in June was proof enough of this, surely?

Above the ground chosen for battle, the Olympians look on. Minerva heard with avid interest the wise words Frederick penned to her in his paen to war, L’Art de la Guerre.

“Much more from MINERVA the chief requires,
Wisdom should guide his breast while courage fires,
There valor cool with temperate ardor lies,
Swift without rashness, without weakness wise,
His prudent care should o’er his troops preside,
And ‘midst the battles rage their efforts guide…”

So rare, a Captain of the field, who even thinks this, let alone commits it to epic verse. Through the long river of history, the last such she recalled was Caesar and his commentaries, some eighteen centuries earlier. And now by a coincidence of fate, he faces the army of the daughter of Caesar.

Fortuna Belli favours the bold, provided they are successful. Although blindfolded, so her favours and frowns are scattered impartially across the field of battle, she also heard her name called in Frederick‘s poem.

“Always attack so shall BELLONA kind,
Smile on your banners waving in the wind,
And favoring fortune aid the daring arms,
Whose rapid charge the expecting foe alarms…”

Again, so wise in a mortal.

Mars will revel in the fight regardless of who will win, and he looks on favourably towards Frederick’s willingness to raise the sword and use it.

Bridled by an exhortation to one supreme effort, his officers know the stakes before them in this battle.

Fate has been kind to the Prussians. Unbeknownst to Prince Charles of Lorraine and the Austrians, they have chosen to occupy a ridge used by the Prussians for their annual war game exercises. Frederick and his men know this land like the back of their hand. Rather than engage in a suicidal advance from Borne to the ridge, and obligingly attacking the Austrians head on whilst outnumbered 1:2, Frederick leads the bulk of his men due south in three columns, whilst a small advance guard cautiously advances beyond the village of Borne. Bewitched by this maneuver, Prince Charles moves some reserves from his left flank to his centre to counter this apparent threat from Borne, whilst watching the bulk of the Prussians march away, in apparent retreat.

But this is no retreat, or exercise. Under the watchful eye of Frederick, the Prussians swing south under the cover of low hills, then with a discipline that comes from constant unthinking practice, the vast whole swings back North, wheeling from column to line, into an attack by oblique order. Frederick has his men where he wants them, in the desired formation.

All this time the Austrian high command is oblivious to the storm about to strike them. At the extreme left of the Austrian line are Bavarians and Württembergers. These men fight for the Holy Roman Empire and her Empress Maria Theresa, but they are not the same quality of men as the Austrian army that they owe allegiance too. They too have seen the Prussians march South, then disappear. But later, much later, a deadly apparition appears before them. The Prussians have returned in full battle array, and are steadily marching towards them in deadly earnest. They have enough time to swing their portion of the line round from the village of Leuthen to face square on to the coming onslaught.

Frederick has placed his best troops at the right hand side of his oblique order, at the point of contact with the Imperialists.

He gives one last exhortation to the strike force of hand picked regiments.

‘Boys, you see the whitecoats there. You’ve got to drive them out the redoubt. All you’ve got to do is go for them with the bayonet and run them out. I’ll support you with five grenadier battalions and the whole army. It’s win or die! In front of you you have the enemy and behind you you have the whole army, so you can’t find a room forward or back except as victors.

The men nod, knowing their task.

In the distance, the Bavarians and Württembergers know this afternoons peace will soon be shattered. But they stand firm for now.

Minerva smiles in approval at Frederick‘s guile and daring.

Leuthen Redux # (1)

1:05 pm

The Prussian cannonade sings out, and their deadly balls plow through the Imperialists. The Prussian line engages them in a series of volleys. It is too much for the Imperialists; they break and flee past the village of Sagschutz without occupying it. Frederick urges his men onwards.

The nearest senior Austrian to this mayhem, General Nádasdy looks on in horror at what is unfolding before him. The cannons roar, the musket volleys fire, sounding like waves breaking on a distant pebble beach.  He swings his own cavalry reserve around to face the sounds, and urges the infantry between Sagshutz and Leuthen to do the same. But by then the Imperialist infantry is falling back in disarray, disrupting these troops, adding to the mayhem and fear and some break as the Prussian cannonade straddles them. He sends a messenger to Prince Charles  and von Daun to break the news to them. They have heard the sounds to their left, and can guess at what it means. But they cannot see anything yet, so the Austrian main line remains in place, facing a threat from the village of Borne that remains elusive.

Leuthen Redux # (2)

1:10 pm

The Bavarians and Württembergers try to wheel a new line of defence round to face the Prussian infantry who continue to sweep forwards. General Nádasdy leads his troopers forwards to stem this tide, but his first line is thrown into confusion by fleeing troops and cannon balls from the Prussian guns..

Behind the Prussian infantry, Count von Zieten leads the Prussian cavalry reserve forwards to counter the emerging threat from the Austrian cavalry.

The messengers from the Bavarians ride on, but haven’t reached Prince Charles yet, who hears the sounds of strife with unease. von Daun is closer to the action, but still awaits orders.

Leuthen Redux # (3)

1:15 pm

The Prussians pour out of Sagschutz, still in perfect oblique order. The Bavarians and Württembergers nervously await this storm, hoping for support.

General Nádasdy withdraws his troopers, waiting for the right moment to strike. Meantime, Count von Zieten and the Prussian cavalry reserve still ride forward to meet them, wheeling his troopers round the woods by the side of the Prussian infantry.

So far, Fortuna Belli has smiled on the Prussians.

Leuthen Redux # (4)

1:20 pm

The Bavarians and Württemberger line crumples in disorder from the fire by the Prussian Grenadiers. Behind the firing line, the Prussian oblique order marches onwards.

The cavalry continue to sweep towards each other, with the Austrians under a steady cannonade from the Prussian guns on the hill.

The Austrian guns along their main line fire out at the distant Prussian cavalry before them. Despite the range, the Prussians are unnerved by the fire and they retire in confusion.

Prince Charles and von Daun finally receive confirmation of what their ears have been telling them. The old fox has outflanked them, and disaster stares them in the face, unless they can wheel their army around to face the onslaught. Orders are issued, short prayers are said.  Fortuna Belli continues to smile on the Prussians, but can the Austrians save themselves?

Leuthen Redux # (5)

1:25 pm

The Württemberger line breaks, but the Bavarians hold the line in some disorder against the Prussian Grenadiers. The Oblique order of Berliner Blau continues marching onwards.

Prince Charles  and von Daun issue their orders and mutter short prayers. They will swing their rear line round first to march on Leuthen and hold the Prussians there. A rider sets out to carry the news down the line.

The cavalry have nearly reached each other. Unseen, Mars rides with the Prussians and draws his sword.

Leuthen Redux # (6)

1:30 pm

The Bavarians have also fallen back, and chaos reigns in the Imperialist infantry before Leuthen. von Zieten’s Prussian troopers  crash into Nádasdy’s Austrian cavalry, who in turn are thrown back, in part by infantry fire from the squares of Prussians on their flank. As Mars revels in the action, Minerva smiles. and sees that Frederick may accomplish another Battle of Zama.

Leuthen Redux # (7)

1:45 pm

The Prussian flood continues, but the white Austrian columns are working their way to form a new white line across Leuthen. Who will get their first and secure a foothold? Fortuna Belli continues to favour the Prussians so far, as the retreating Imperialist infantry disrupt their comrades advance.

Nádasdy’s Austrian cavalry fall back before von Zieten’s troopers, but to their rear, Luchasse’s Austrian troopers begin to swing round to plug the gap.

The next fifteen minutes will be crucial, but events are happening so fast across the battle line that no general can control events. They can only hope the streams of fire they have unleashed will be successful once their effects have been felt.

Leuthen Redux # (10)

2:00 pm

The Prussians drive onwards and the line of fire now runs along the village of Leuthen. The Austrian troops fall out of the village and join the fleeing Bavarians and Württembergers in throwing the approaching Austrians into chaos. Only along the western flank of Leuthen do the Austrian infantry stand firm. But their flank is unsecured. Spotting their chance, the Prussian cavalry between Heidau and Radaxdorf ride forwards.

Prince Charles and von Daun, at different points in the fray feel increasingly nervous about how their troops are responding, and the general slide into chaos at the firing line.

Leuthen Redux # (13)

2:15 pm

The line of Austrian white columns advance towards their colleagues who run into them, through them, in panic. The battle is as good as lost, and yet there is no order to retire, so the good are propelled towards the bad and become disorganized themselves. Mars rides with the Prussian cavalry, and they hunt down the fleeing Austrian infantry as they run for their life.  Minerva knows that Frederick has his Zama, but Fortuna Belli will not signal to Victory yet.

Leuthen Redux # (16)

2:30 pm

In the centre, the Prussian cavalry ride down the fleeing Austrian infantry;  Mars is resplendent.  To the west of the battlefield, the remnants of Nádasdy’s troopers try their art once more against Count von Zieten’s men. They may buy time for their hard pressed comrades in the infantry, but the tide cannot be turned now. Even Prince Charles , and von Daun are riding to the rear. The Prussian artillery  limber up, and follow their comrades as the battle moves out of range for their guns. This is hard work, but no-one is firing back at them.  One by one, the Austrian batteries are falling to the Prussians.

Leuthen Redux # (19)

2:45 pm

Relief for the Austrians has appeared in the form of cavalry, which shields the retreat of their infantry. Facing a new threat, the Prussian cavalry before Frobelwitz backs away. Between Leuthen and Frobelwitz, a lone Austrian infantry square holds firm; the sole point of order. Meanwhile the flood of retreating Austrian infantry has reached the point of chaos; no troops could be reformed to fight today in good order; unit after unit has merged into one mass. Prince Charles  knows the battle is lost. What can he salvage from this moment?

Leuthen Redux # (22)

3:00 pm

The Prussian tide sweeps on as the Austrians retreat. All, except reinforcements to the west of Gluckerwitz, which form up in good order; the better to help their comrades retreat.

The Prussian artillery have reached a small hillock, ready to unlimber and pour fire onto the Austrians.

Leuthen Redux # (25)

3:15 pm

Austrian resistance is now centered between the villages of Frobelwitz and Gluckerwitz. A lone artillery battery spits defiance against the Prussians, who in turn mark it for capture when their flood allows it. In the distant rear, Prussian artillery fire out over their comrades heads. Their cannon balls strike the fleeing Austrian infantry, adding to their chaos.

Leuthen Redux # (28)

3:30 pm

Only a small pocket of Austrian resistance remains. The Prussian infantry forms out of battle array and into a  column of pursuit.  Austrian infantry are still falling to the swords of the Prussian cavalry. All for them is lost.

Leuthen Redux # (31)

3:40 pm

One last Austrian infantry square offers resistance, surrounded by Prussian infantry. They will soon fall. The rest of their army has fled.

Leuthen Redux # (33)

Prince Charles and von Daun flee with their men. They are at a loss to explain how their certitude dissolved in little over an hour, and against such a small army! They have been outgeneralled, and they know it. Their Empress will know of it shortly. She will remove Prince Charles from command and entrust all to the victor of Kolin.

Frederick has little time to celebrate his famous victory. He must organise and lead the pursuit against the Austrians. A moments effort now will gain much repose later. ‘Vorwärts’! he demands, and his men obey.

Fortuna Belli nods to Victory that the day belongs to  Frederick and his men; something that  Minerva has known for sometime. Lesser men than Frederick have been given the epithet ‘the Great’, but she knows that in the space of one month, he has destroyed two armies in the field at odds of 2:1 against his men. This is unprecedented for the modern age; perhaps for all ages. He deserves his title, and unwillingly to become the servant of his people in many more battles for another six years of war.

Perhaps this is the cause of his poem he leaves to his heir.

ILLUSTRIOUS Prince to whom ’tis given by fate,
To bear the burthen, and the pomp of state,
To reign of spacious realms the future lord,
To lift the balance, and to wield the sword,
0 hear a Soldier train’d to War’s alarms,
Inur’d to danger, and grown old in arms,
With voice experienc’d shew the thorny road
Which leads thro’ scenes of blood to fame’s abode.

 L’Art de la Guerre, Frederick the Great.

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Here’s an animated gif for each move in the battle.

Leuthen 1757 Redux

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The Generals fighting this battle were

Charles redux

Prince Charles.

Friedrich Redux

Frederick the Great.

Battle of Leuthen Redux Colours